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titleDiffuse Parameters

Diffuse Parameters

The diffuse parameters control the look of basic diffuse reflection. These are often used to define primary color attributes for opaque objects; wood textures, label text, polka dots, or more, you can find them all connected here. This lobe is on by default.

Gain

Gain is the weight applied to the diffuse parameters. You may also drive this with another pattern to show things like fading or wetness (where liquid darkens a surface). Below are examples at 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 gain for a 50% grey material.




Color

Color is typically where textures or patterns are connected to create color for opaque objects. This is where a wood color texture would go, for example.




Roughness

Diffuse roughness is how you would simulate a powdery surface like dried clay or dust.

 

 

Bump

Bump mapping is a great way to fake the appearance of physical detail using shading instead. If this is not set, it will use the global bump normal specified in the Properties section near the bottom of this page.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate both sides of the surface for this diffuse lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera (2-dimensional objects) as well.

 

Use Diffuse Color

This only applies when Double Sided is on. By default, this is on to use the Diffuse Color for the back color.

 

Back Color

This only applies when Double Sided is on. When Use Diffuse Color if off, this sets the back color (the color for the back side). By default, it uses the Diffuse Color but choosing a different color provides you with a way to make the backside of 2D objects appear differently.

 

Transmit Gain

This only applies when Double Sided is on. This sets the transmit gain as a multiplier. If it's 0.0 then the effect is off. Below the Transmit Color is bright blue.

 

 

Transmit Color

This only applies when Double Sided is on. This sets the transmit color which could be different than the diffuse or back color. This is ignored if Transmit Gain is zero. This effect is useful for thin objects like leaves or paper. Below there's a light placed in the interior of the object and some interior text can be seen as light transmits through the surface.

 

 

 

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titleSpecular Parameters

Specular and Rough Specular Parameters

The specular parameters control specular reflection. This is where you might define how shiny or reflective an object is. Is it plastic, a polished marble table, or  is it a mirror? The Rough Specular lobe below this has identical settings and effects.

Note

There's also the option for Artistic and Physical controls. The Artistic controls allows you to manually alter the properties of the reflection to match your tastes. Using Physical (with provided presets) can provide you with a matching real-world response for those looking to duplicate reality without endless tweaking.

 

Specular Model

Select which specular model to use: Beckmann or Ggx. Ggx may be preferred for its "tail", or how the highlight has a soft fade from the center reflection of a lightsource. Left is Beckmann and Right is GGX with roughness 0.25.

 

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Specular Fresnel Mode

In Artistic mode, specular fresnel response will be controlled by its Face Color, Edge Color, and Fresnel Exponent.

In Physical mode, specular fresnel response will be controlled by its Refractive Index, Extinction Coefficient, and Edge Color.


Face Color (Artistic Mode)

Specular color at facing angle (0 degree incidence). Note that there is no separate gain control. To control the specular "gain", simply adjust the color value or connect it to a PxrExposure node. Below are different choices including textured at roughness 0.25.

 

 

Edge Color

Specular color at the glancing angle (90 degree incidence). To control the edge specular "gain", simply adjust the color value or connect it to a PxrExposure node. Below are different choices including textured at roughness 0.25. The Fresnel Exponent is also reduced here to make it more obvious.

 

Note

Understand that this control changes meaning in the Physical Mode and operates as a multiplier for the reflection result in Physical mode. You can control reflection intensity and even tint the result using this parameter in Physical Mode. Below we used black, 50% grey, and white.

 

 

 

Fresnel Exponent (Artistic Mode)

Specular fresnel curve exponent. Lower numbers reduces the effect of Face Color while increasing the effect of Edge Color. Higher numbers reverse this. If your face and edge colors are the same, then there is no visible effect. Below we use a red Face Color and green Edge Color and increase the Fresnel Exponent from 0.1 to 1.5 and finally 5.0 with a small roughness.

 

 

Refractive Index (Physical Mode)

This is a parameter meant to describe a physical refractive Index; the dielectric index of refraction for the material. Channel values for this parameter typically lie in the range 1 - 3. Since we support 3 color values to capture the spectral effect presets may be preferred over color pickers to avoid lots of tweaking.

 

Extinction Coefficient (Physical Mode)

Extinction Coefficient is a second refractive index for the material useful for characterizing metallic behaviors. Channel values for this parameter typically lie in the range 1 - 3. Since we support 3 color values to capture the spectral effect presets may be preferred over color pickers. When 0, the material reacts as a dielectric (glass, clearcoat). When non-zero, the material responds as a conductor would. Since this is based on physical values you should the presets more helpful than manual tweaking of settings. Below are presets for Copper, Gold, and Nickel.

 


Roughness

Specular roughness. A greater value produces rougher or "blurry" specular reflection. At 1.0 it resembles a diffuse surface and at 0.0 it's a perfectly clear reflection. Most objects will be realistic somewhere in between these values. Texturing this value may give you interesting effects like smudges, greasy fingerprints, and worn surfaces. Below are examples from 0.0 to 0.5 and finally 1.0 (diffuse).

 

 

Anisotropy

Controls the shape of the specular highlights and reflections. 0 means isotropic which produces the regular circular specular highlight. Values from -1.0 to 1.0 produce the range of ellipses (stretching) from wide to tall.

By default, the direction of anisotropy is controlled by the model texture parameters. If the Shading Tangent is specified, it is used instead. Below are examples of -1.0, 0.0, and 1.0.

 

 

Shading Tangent

Controls the anisotropy direction. Only valid when it is connected to a pattern. This is useful for making brushed metals. Below are three examples using textures and an Anisotropy of -10

 

 

Bump

Normal to use for the specular illumination. If this is not set, it will use the global bump normal specified in the Properties near the bottom of this page.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this specular lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera as well.

 

 

Rough Specular

Identical Specular parameters except it has a larger default roughness which is 0.6. This layer is intended for use with higher roughness settings than the Specular lobe above. Below from left to right: Rough Specular, Specular, both lobes combined.

 

 

 

 

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titleClear Coat Parameters

Clear Coat

Clear coats are great for making a top glazed layer found in coated objects or paints like car paint, carbon fiber, and more. You can even use a bump exclusive to this layer to make for convincing coating imperfections. While roughness is available, this layer is intended for low amounts of roughness. You will notice in the parameter examples that the base diffuse is 50% grey to illustrate how this works as a coating. If you need a metallic surface, use the above Specular lobes.

Note

There's also the option for Artistic and Physical controls. The Artistic controls allows you to manually alter the properties of the reflection to match your tastes. Using Physical (with provided presets) can provide you with a matching real-world response for those looking to duplicate reality without endless tweaking.

 

 

Specular Model

Select which specular model to use: Beckmann or Ggx. Again, Ggx might be preferred for its "tail" or fade from the center highlight of reflected light sources.

 

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Specular Fresnel Mode

In Artistic mode, specular fresnel response will be controlled by its Face Color, Edge Color, and Fresnel Exponent.

In Physical mode, specular fresnel response will be controlled by its Refractive Index, Extinction Coefficient, and Edge Color.

 

Face Color (Artistic Mode)

Specular color at facing angle (0 degree incidence). Note that there is no separate gain control. To control the specular "gain", simply adjust the color value or connect it to a PxrExposure node.

 

 

Edge Color

Specular color at the glancing angle (90 degree incidence). To control the edge specular "gain", simply adjust the color value or connect it to a PxrExposure node.

Note

Understand that this control changes meaning in the Physical Mode and operates as a multiplier for the reflection result in Physical mode. You can control reflection intensity and even tint the result using this parameter in Physical Mode.

 

Image AddedImage AddedImage Added

 

 

Fresnel Exponent (Artistic Mode)

Specular fresnel curve exponent. Lower numbers reduces the effect of Face Color while increasing the effect of Edge Color. Higher numbers reverse this. If your face and edge colors are the same, then there is no visible effect. Below we use a red Face Color and green Edge Color and increase the Fresnel Exponent from 0.1 to 1.5 and finally 5.0 with a small roughness.

 

Refractive Index (Physical Mode)

This is a parameter meant to describe a physical refractive Index; the dielectric index of refraction for the material. Channel values for this parameter typically lie in the range 1 - 3. Since we support 3 color values to capture the spectral effect presets may be preferred over color pickers to avoid lots of tweaking.

 

Extinction Coefficient (Physical Mode)

Extinction Coefficient is a second refractive index for the material useful for characterizing metallic behaviors. Channel values for this parameter typically lie in the range 1 - 3. Since we support 3 color values to capture the spectral effect presets may be preferred over color pickers. When 0, the material reacts as a dielectric (glass, clearcoat). When non-zero, the material responds as a conductor would. Since this is based on physical values you should the presets more helpful than manual tweaking of settings. Left to right are Copper, Gold, and Nickel.

 

Image AddedImage AddedImage Added

 

Roughness

Specular roughness. A greater value produces rougher or "blurry" specular reflection. At 1.0 it resembles a diffuse surface and at 0.0 it's a perfectly clear reflection. Most objects will be realistic somewhere in between these values. Texturing this value may give you interesting effects like smudges, greasy fingerprints, and worn surfaces. Below are values 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0

 

 

Anisotropy

Controls the shape of the specular highlights and reflections. 0 means isotropy which produces the regular circular specular highlight. Values from -1.0 to 1.0 produce the range of ellipses (stretching) from wide to tall.

By default, the direction of anisotropy is controlled by the model texture parameters. If the Shading Tangent is specified, it is used instead. You may even "overdrive" the parameter by going further than -1.0 and 1.0.

 

 

Shading Tangent

Controls the anisotropy direction. Only valid when it is connected to a pattern. This is useful for making brushed metals.

 

 

Bump

Normal to use for the clear coat illumination. If this is not set, it will use the global bump normal specified in the Properties near the bottom of the page. Setting this separately can produce a "glazed" effect where you have a bumpy clearcoat above a smooth surface.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this clear coat lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera as well.

 

Specular Energy Compensation

Applies fresnel energy compensation to diffuse and subsurface illumination lobes. A value of 1.0 attempts to fully balance those results by darkening them against the specular and rough specular illumination responses.

Specular and Rough Specular roughness are also taken into account. The effect fades off as specular face or edge color approaches 1.0, so metals can add a diffuse baseline color.

 

Clearcoat Energy Compensation

Applies fresnel energy compensation to all lobes other than clearcoat itself. A value of 1.0 attempts to fully balance those results by darkening them against the clearcoat illumination response.

Clearcoat roughness is also taken into account. The effect fades off as clearcoat face or edge color approaches 1.0, so metals can add a diffuse baseline color.

 

Image AddedImage Added

 

 

 

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titleIridescence Parameters

Iridescence

Iridescence is a view-dependent scattering of light that causes a color shift. This is the same effect responsible for the color swirl on a soap bubble, peacock feathers, or a shiny beetle. "Holographic" or color shifting paint uses this effect as well.

Iridescence Mode

Select which iridescence mode to use: Artistic or Physical.

In Artistic mode, we just set 2 colors. Depending on the iridescence scale factor, we will see N number of "rainbows". The default of red and blue is appropriate to get a maximum color spread but you can reduce the number of colors rendered by changing these defaults. Unless otherwise specified or demonstrating an Artistic Parameter, the examples use Physical mode.

In Physical mode, we pass the thickness of your thin film in nanometers. The iridescence effect happens when the physical thickness is close to the visible spectrum. You can start around 800nm and increase the value to see the effect. This option is great because it reduces parameters to tweak at the cost of flexibility. Unless otherwise specified or demonstrating an Artistic Parameter, the examples use Physical mode. Below are Artistic (left) and Physical (right) modes.

 

 

Face Gain

Iridescence gain at facing angle (0 degree incidence).

 

 

Edge Gain

Iridescence gain at the glancing angle (90 degree incidence).

 

 

Primary Color

This is for Artistic mode only.

Iridescence primary color on the hue wheel to start from. From here the color shifts through the other available hues between the Primary and Secondary Color. The closer on the color wheel your choices, the fewer colors will be rendered. Below are three examples beginning at Red, then Yellow, and finally Green. The color bar shows what colors are available between these choices.

 

 

Secondary Color

This is for Artistic mode only.

Iridescence secondary color on the hue wheel to end. As demonstrated above you can use this to limit the colors rendered. Below are three examples where the Secondary Color goes from Violet to Blue and finally to Green. The hue bar shows this change on a ramp.


Falloff Speed

This is for Artistic mode only.

Falloff speed from Primary Color to Secondary Color. Larger numbers falloff more slowly. Below uses the defaults for Artistic Mode but we change the Falloff Speed from 0.1 to 0.5 to 1.0

 

 

Falloff Scale

This is for Artistic mode only.

This sets how many times the iridescence "rainbows" color repeat. Below we go from 0.5 to 1.0 and finally 3.0. Notice that higher values begin to repeat the rainbow effect. This is useful for simulating oil patterns such as oil on water or soap bubbles.

 

 

Flip Hue Direction

This is for Artistic mode only.

Flip the hue wheel direction between primary and secondary colors. By default, the hue wheel direction is counter clockwise. Left is off, right is on.

 

 

Thin Film Thickness

This is for Physical mode only.

Thin film thickness in nanometers. We begin at 400 then 800 and finally 1600 nanometers from left to right. Notice that at 1600 we begin to see a repetition in the rainbow effect. This is similar to the effect of using the Falloff Scale in Artistic Mode.

 

 

Roughness

Iridescence roughness, this is like other roughness parameters where you can go from a mirror-like reflection at 0.0 to diffuse reflection at 1.0. Below are examples, left to right, of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0. Softer looks are reminiscent of color changing makeup and similar powders.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this iridescence lobe. This is useful for thin opened surfaces such as feathers and leaves that are modeled without thickness.

 

 

 

Expand
titleFuzz Parameters

Fuzz Parameters

This parameter introduces a bit of retroreflection and helps simulate fabrics, fuzz, and fine powder.

Gain

Fuzz weight. Higher numbers increase this effect. Below the Cone Angle is set to 16.

 

 

Color

Fuzz color. This simulates a soft velvety-like effect. This is applied "on top" of the previous Specular lobes and may resemble dirt or fine dust. Below the Cone Angle is set to 16.

 

 

Cone Angle

Fuzz roughness (corresponding to Marschner R cone angle). Note that we use something from Marschner's hair model here. This helps to simulate a similar response to hair/fur. Higher numbers increase the effect at facing angles. Below are values 8, 16, and 32.

 

 

Bump

Normal to use for the fuzz illumination. If this is not set, it will use the global bump normal specified in the Properties near the bottom of this page.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this fuzz lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera as well.

 

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