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titleClear Coat Parameters

Clear Coat

Clear coats are great for making a top glazed layer found in coated objects or paints like car paint, carbon fiber, and more. You can even use a bump exclusive to this layer to make for convincing coating imperfections. While roughness is available, this layer is intended for low amounts of roughness. You will notice in the parameter examples that the base diffuse is 50% grey to illustrate how this works as a coating. If you need a metallic surface, use the above Specular lobes.

Note

There's also the option for Artistic and Physical controls. The Artistic controls allows you to manually alter the properties of the reflection to match your tastes. Using Physical (with provided presets) can provide you with a matching real-world response for those looking to duplicate reality without endless tweaking.

 

 

Specular Model

Select which specular model to use: Beckmann or Ggx. Again, Ggx might be preferred for its "tail" or fade from the center highlight of reflected light sources.

 

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Specular Fresnel Mode

In Artistic mode, specular fresnel response will be controlled by its Face Color, Edge Color, and Fresnel Exponent.

In Physical mode, specular fresnel response will be controlled by its Refractive Index, Extinction Coefficient, and Edge Color.

 

Face Color (Artistic Mode)

Specular color at facing angle (0 degree incidence). Note that there is no separate gain control. To control the specular "gain", simply adjust the color value or connect it to a PxrExposure node.

 

 

Edge Color

Specular color at the glancing angle (90 degree incidence). To control the edge specular "gain", simply adjust the color value or connect it to a PxrExposure node.

Note

Understand that this control changes meaning in the Physical Mode and operates as a multiplier for the reflection result in Physical mode. You can control reflection intensity and even tint the result using this parameter in Physical Mode.

 

 

 

Fresnel Exponent (Artistic Mode)

Specular fresnel curve exponent. Lower numbers reduces the effect of Face Color while increasing the effect of Edge Color. Higher numbers reverse this. If your face and edge colors are the same, then there is no visible effect. Below we use a red Face Color and green Edge Color and increase the Fresnel Exponent from 0.1 to 1.5 and finally 5.0 with a small roughness.

 

Refractive Index (Physical Mode)

This is a parameter meant to describe a physical refractive Index; the dielectric index of refraction for the material. Channel values for this parameter typically lie in the range 1 - 3. Since we support 3 color values to capture the spectral effect presets may be preferred over color pickers to avoid lots of tweaking.

 

Extinction Coefficient (Physical Mode)

Extinction Coefficient is a second refractive index for the material useful for characterizing metallic behaviors. Channel values for this parameter typically lie in the range 1 - 3. Since we support 3 color values to capture the spectral effect presets may be preferred over color pickers. When 0, the material reacts as a dielectric (glass, clearcoat). When non-zero, the material responds as a conductor would. Since this is based on physical values you should the presets more helpful than manual tweaking of settings. Left to right are Copper, Gold, and Nickel.

 

 

Roughness

Specular roughness. A greater value produces rougher or "blurry" specular reflection. At 1.0 it resembles a diffuse surface and at 0.0 it's a perfectly clear reflection. Most objects will be realistic somewhere in between these values. Texturing this value may give you interesting effects like smudges, greasy fingerprints, and worn surfaces. Below are values 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0

 

 

Anisotropy

Controls the shape of the specular highlights and reflections. 0 means isotropy which produces the regular circular specular highlight. Values from -1.0 to 1.0 produce the range of ellipses (stretching) from wide to tall.

By default, the direction of anisotropy is controlled by the model texture parameters. If the Shading Tangent is specified, it is used instead. You may even "overdrive" the parameter by going further than -1.0 and 1.0.

 

 

Shading Tangent

Controls the anisotropy direction. Only valid when it is connected to a pattern. This is useful for making brushed metals.

 

 

Bump

Normal to use for the clear coat illumination. If this is not set, it will use the global bump normal specified in the Properties near the bottom of the page. Setting this separately can produce a "glazed" effect where you have a bumpy clearcoat above a smooth surface.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this clear coat lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera as well.

 

Specular Energy Compensation

Applies fresnel energy compensation to diffuse and subsurface illumination lobes. A value of 1.0 attempts to fully balance those results by darkening them against the specular and rough specular illumination responses.

Specular and Rough Specular roughness are also taken into account. The effect fades off as specular face or edge color approaches 1.0, so metals can add a diffuse baseline color.

 

Clearcoat Energy Compensation

Applies fresnel energy compensation to all lobes other than clearcoat itself. A value of 1.0 attempts to fully balance those results by darkening them against the clearcoat illumination response.

Clearcoat roughness is also taken into account. The effect fades off as clearcoat face or edge color approaches 1.0, so metals can add a diffuse baseline color. Left is 0.0 (default) Right is 1.0. Notice the darkening (changes in energy conservation) that happens.

 

 

 

 

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titleIridescence Parameters

Iridescence

Iridescence is a view-dependent scattering of light that causes a color shift. This is the same effect responsible for the color swirl on a soap bubble, peacock feathers, or a shiny beetle. "Holographic" or color shifting paint uses this effect as well.

Iridescence Mode

Select which iridescence mode to use: Artistic or Physical.

In Artistic mode, we just set 2 colors. Depending on the iridescence scale factor, we will see N number of "rainbows". The default of red and blue is appropriate to get a maximum color spread but you can reduce the number of colors rendered by changing these defaults. Unless otherwise specified or demonstrating an Artistic Parameter, the examples use Physical mode.

In Physical mode, we pass the thickness of your thin film in nanometers. The iridescence effect happens when the physical thickness is close to the visible spectrum. You can start around 800nm and increase the value to see the effect. This option is great because it reduces parameters to tweak at the cost of flexibility. Unless otherwise specified or demonstrating an Artistic Parameter, the examples use Physical mode. Below are Artistic (left) and Physical (right) modes.

 

 

Face Gain

Iridescence gain at facing angle (0 degree incidence).

 

 

Edge Gain

Iridescence gain at the glancing angle (90 degree incidence).

 

 

Primary Color

This is for Artistic mode only.

Iridescence primary color on the hue wheel to start from. From here the color shifts through the other available hues between the Primary and Secondary Color. The closer on the color wheel your choices, the fewer colors will be rendered. Below are three examples beginning at Red, then Yellow, and finally Green. The color bar shows what colors are available between these choices.

 

 

Secondary Color

This is for Artistic mode only.

Iridescence secondary color on the hue wheel to end. As demonstrated above you can use this to limit the colors rendered. Below are three examples where the Secondary Color goes from Violet to Blue and finally to Green. The hue bar shows this change on a ramp.


Falloff Speed

This is for Artistic mode only.

Falloff speed from Primary Color to Secondary Color. Larger numbers falloff more slowly. Below uses the defaults for Artistic Mode but we change the Falloff Speed from 0.1 to 0.5 to 1.0

 

 

Falloff Scale

This is for Artistic mode only.

This sets how many times the iridescence "rainbows" color repeat. Below we go from 0.5 to 1.0 and finally 3.0. Notice that higher values begin to repeat the rainbow effect. This is useful for simulating oil patterns such as oil on water or soap bubbles.

 

 

Flip Hue Direction

This is for Artistic mode only.

Flip the hue wheel direction between primary and secondary colors. By default, the hue wheel direction is counter clockwise. Left is off, right is on.

 

 

Thin Film Thickness

This is for Physical mode only.

Thin film thickness in nanometers. We begin at 400 then 800 and finally 1600 nanometers from left to right. Notice that at 1600 we begin to see a repetition in the rainbow effect. This is similar to the effect of using the Falloff Scale in Artistic Mode.

 

 

Roughness

Iridescence roughness, this is like other roughness parameters where you can go from a mirror-like reflection at 0.0 to diffuse reflection at 1.0. Below are examples, left to right, of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0. Softer looks are reminiscent of color changing makeup and similar powders.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this iridescence lobe. This is useful for thin opened surfaces such as feathers and leaves that are modeled without thickness.

 

 

 

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titleFuzz Parameters

Fuzz Parameters

This parameter introduces a bit of retroreflection and helps simulate fabrics, fuzz, and fine powder.

Gain

Fuzz weight. Higher numbers increase this effect. Below the Cone Angle is set to 16.

 

 

Color

Fuzz color. This simulates a soft velvety-like effect. This is applied "on top" of the previous Specular lobes and may resemble dirt or fine dust. Below the Cone Angle is set to 16.

 

 

Cone Angle

Fuzz roughness (corresponding to Marschner R cone angle). Note that we use something from Marschner's hair model here. This helps to simulate a similar response to hair/fur. Higher numbers increase the effect at facing angles. Below are values 8, 16, and 32.

 

 

Bump

Normal to use for the fuzz illumination. If this is not set, it will use the global bump normal specified in the Properties near the bottom of this page.

 

 

Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this fuzz lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera as well.

 

 

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titleSubsurface Scattering Parameters

Subsurface Scattering Parameters

Subsurface Model

Select a subsurface scattering model: Jensen Dipole, d'Eon Better Dipole, Burley Normalized, and Multiple Mean Free Paths. The parameters are populated based on the model chosen and are valid for that model. If you change which model you use, your connections may be lost to invalid parameters.

Burley Normalized produces the most accurate effect effects while preserving details.

Jensen and d'Eon Dipoles are great for very translucent objects like gummies and extended art direction.

Multiple Mean Free Paths is great for texturing to produce color bleed easily. While not necessarily physically correct, its intuitive scattering of textured colors works well for art direction.

 

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Gain

Subsurface scattering weight. Higher numbers increase the visibility of the subsurface scattering.

 

 

Color

Subsurface scattering color.

 

 

Mean Free Path Distance

Subsurface scattering mean free path distance (mfpd). This specifies how far the light travels inside an object and as a consequence how smooth the subsurface scattering is. This gets multiplied by the unit length set in the Properties section. Higher amounts make the object appear less opaque and more translucent as well as increase noise. Small amounts make the surface look diffuse and it may be more efficient to turn off the effect (0.0 Gain) if it's not visually important. Below we change the values from 8 to 16 and then 32. Notice how the sphere and pedestal become "softer" and more translucent. Your render times might also increase at high values due to noise generated by translucent objects.

 

 

Mean Free Path Color

How far the light travels in the Red, Green, and Blue spectra. This is scaled by Mean Free Path Distance. Different colors may spread more or less and provide interesting effects like the red color bleeding into shadow edges on skin. The RGB values correspond to how far the light travels in that color band. For example, and RGB value of 0.8 0.65 0.5 means Red spreads furthest at 0.8, then Green and finally Blue traveling the least distance in the object scatter result. Below we've taken out the center sphere and replaced it with a bright disk light at the back of the outer sphere. Note that the sphere and pedestal share the same material and lighting plays an important role in your result.

 

 

Post Tint

Tint that is applied at the end of the subsurface computation. Below on the left is a normal render and on the right a very light blue tint is added. If we want to apply the tint before the subsurface computation, set Irradiance Tint in the Properties section.

 

Multiple Mean Free Paths Description


Multiple Mean Free Paths operates differently than the others in a few significant ways. For most cases you will be happy with the results of the other models. However, there are instances where the user may want a non-physical way to control the colors of the scattering. The Mean Free Path Color in many models uses the supplied RGB value to determine the color scatter as noted in the parameter description. This means your result may have color shifts that are not desirable. Let's say you supply a textured color of RGB 0.51 0.28 0.31 which is a pink color. The scattering result will also include the green (0.28) and blue (0.31) responses. The Multiple Mean Free Paths model maintains the pink color. Below is an example using this scenario illustrating the differences. The texture is connected to the Color and Mean Free Path Color of the Jensen Dipole and to the Short and Long Colors of the Multiple Mean Free Paths model in addition. Note the color shift on the Jensen model (Left) while the Multiple Mean Free Paths version maintains the colors of the texture at all depths where connected.

 

 

Short Gain

Short subsurface gain or weight. This is only valid for Multiple Mean Free Paths subsurface model.

 


Short Color

Short subsurface color. This is only valid for Multiple Mean Free Paths subsurface model.

 

 


Long Gain

Long subsurface gain or weight. This is only valid for Multiple Mean Free Paths subsurface model. Operates the same as Short Gain.


Long Color

Long subsurface color. This is only valid for Multiple Mean Free Paths subsurface model.

 

Short MFP Distance

Short subsurface mean free path scalar distance. Below we go from 16 to 24 and finally 32.

 

 

Long MFP Distance

Short subsurface mean free path scalar distance. Below we go from 16 to 24 and finally 32.

 

 

Diffuse Computation Switch

Switch the subsurface computation to a diffuse computation if the dmfp is smaller than the ray footprint (not visible given the settings and distance). This is an optimization to ignore computing scattering, especially on far away objects or objects where the scattering scale is so low a diffuse computation is visually similar and much faster. This may be easier than manually setting the Gain to 0.0. Lower values increase the chance of rendering a diffuse computation instead of subsurface scattering.


Double Sided

If on, illuminate on both sides of the surface for this subsurface lobe, that is, this will illuminate the surface whose normal is pointing away from the camera as well.


Trace Control:

Consider Backside

Whether subsurface respects surfaces on the other side. This is for the hit side, not the illuminating side (which is subsurfaceDoubleSided):

  • "Off" - It will ignore surfaces on the other side completely. This is useful to make objects appear thicker than they are.
  • "On" - Normal mode, where the diffusion happens between the front and the first surface behind it.


Continuation Ray Mode

Control continuation ray mode:

"Off" - Simply trace out of the object (default).

"Last Hit" - Ignore internal geometry and jump to the last surface.

"All Hits" - Scatter (collect light) on all hits as the ray leaves the object. This can bring additional brightness, at the cost of additional noise.

Below left we use "All Hits" and you can plainly see the text "SUBSURFACE" embedded in the sphere. To the right it's set to "Off" which causes the embedded geometry to render incorrectly by clamping that falloff.

 

 

Max Continuation Hits

Maximum number of hits to test in all hits mode. This is only valid when Continuation Ray Mode equals All Hits

 

 

Follow Topology

Controls how strongly normals are considered in the subsurface computation. This may affect visible details created through bump mapping as well.

 

 

Trace Subset

Specify trace subset for inclusion/exclusion when struck by a ray indirectly.

 

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titleGlow Parameters

Glow Parameters

Glow can make an object appear to emit light. This is useful when you need a textured effect like lit panels, circuitry, lava, or other complex effects with local influence in lighting.

 

Note

This is not an efficient way to light a scene and would require indirect bounces to be at least 2 to be effective. We recommend this as a textured effect and not for actual lighting.

 

Gain

Glow gain or weight. Below we go from the default grey material and increase the gain (using white color) to 0.5 and then 1.0.

 

Image AddedImage AddedImage Added

 

Color

Controls the incandescence color, or glow, of the material. Below are various examples of textured inputs to the Color parameter.

 

Image AddedImage AddedImage Added

 

 

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titleReflection & Refraction Parameters

Glass Parameters

Refraction Gain

Refraction gain.

Reflection Gain

Reflection gain.

Refracton Color

Refraction color.

Roughness

Refraction and reflection roughness.

Refractive Index

Index of refraction.

Thin

If on, correctly split energy according to Refractive Index between reflection and refraction, but do not bend the ray in refraction (simulating a double pane of glass with a single pane).

Interior Parameters

Single Scatter Albedo

Single scatter albedo. Connect this to a 3D pattern to control the intensity of the scattering.

Single Directionality

Controls the directionality of the scattering.0 : isotropic1 : forward-1 : backward

Extinction

Extinction color. Connect this to a 3D pattern to control the density of the interior.

Min Extinction Color

Minimum extinction color.

Max Extinction Color

Maximum extinction color.

Step Size

Ray marching step size. Step size is based on the resolution of the 3D pattern that is connected. Inadequate step size will produce artifacts.

Max Steps

Max number of steps.

 

 

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titleGlobal Properties Parameters

Properties Parameters

This section provide global controls for the entire material. For example, if a Bump is only supplied here, it applies to all the above lobes. Presence is also a global parameter that will mask out or "cutout" all the lobes as-if the object isn't present where the mask has a value of 0.0

Bump

Normal to use for all illumination unless it is overridden by the individual lobe's bump normal.

Presence

Connect a mask here to apply a cutout pattern to your object. Presence is defined as a binary (0 or 1) function that can take on continuous values to anti-alias the shape. Useful for creating leaves and other thin, complex shapes.

Info

This value should be either 0 or 1. A value between 0 and 1 will produce unwanted noise!

Presence Cached

Specify whether presence is cached or not.

Shadow Mode

Shadow opacity computation mode:

  • Shader and shadow color
  • Shadow color only

Shadow Color

Specify shadow color. This parameter is useful for faking a shadow color for art direction purposes.

 

 

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