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Emissive volumes may be very slow to converge, especially if they are the only light source in the scene - it may require many hundreds or even thousands of camera samples to render a noise free image. Until volumes are supported as full light sources that can be used for direct lighting, we We suggest that emissive volumes be used very sparingly, instead use the Light Source parameter.

Multiple Scattering is a very costly effect, both because it means the light is bouncing that many more times in a volume, but also because PxrVolume cannot take more samples itself (the Samples parameter is ignored), and is at the mercy of the Integrator settings. Moreover, multiple scattering may slow down the convergence of objects behind the volume. Therefore we suggest that whenever possible, multiple scattering should be avoided. For media with low albedo, multiple scattering adds very little to the final render. For some media like clouds, whose light transport involves many tens or hundreds of light bounces, unfortunately multiple scattering may be unavoidable.